Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MR Imaging Evaluation of Perfusional Changes and Ablation Zone Size after Combination Embolization and Ablation Therapy


Jason Chiang, MD, PhD, Hiro Sparks, MD, Johann S. Rink, MD, M. Franca Meloni, MD, Frank Hao, MD, Kyung H. Sung, PhD, and Edward W. Lee, MD, PhD

Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology


Available online 8 November 2022

Received 4 June 2022, Revised 29 September 2022, Accepted 28 October 2022, Available online 8 November 2022.



The objectives of this study were to assess the utility of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in quantifying parenchymal perfusional changes after embolization and to characterize the association between pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters and final microwave ablation volume.

Materials and Methods

PK parameters from dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging were used to quantify perfusional changes in the liver after transarterial embolization of the right or left lobe in a swine liver model (n = 5). Each animal subject subsequently underwent microwave ablation (60 W for 5 minutes) of the embolized and nonembolized liver lobes. Changes in PK parameters from dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging were correlated with their respective final microwave ablation volumes in each liver lobe.


Microwave ablation volumes of embolized liver lobes were significantly larger than those of nonembolized liver lobes (28.0 mL ± 6.2 vs 15.1 mL ± 5.2, P < .001). PK perfusion parameters were significantly lower in embolized liver lobes than in nonembolized liver lobes (Ktrans = 0.69 min−1 ± 0.15 vs 1.52 min−1 ± 0.37, P < .001; kep = 0.69 min−1 ± 0.19 vs 1.54 min−1 ± 0.42, P < .001). There was a moderate but significant correlation between normalized kep and ablation volume, with each unit increase in normalized kep corresponding to a 9.8-mL decrease in ablation volume (P = .035).


PK-derived parameters from dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging can be used to quantify perfusional changes after transarterial embolization and are directly inversely correlated with final ablation volume.